Ran into this problem today after updating SQL Server Management Studio to the latest version (16.5.3). It refused to launch. I didn’t even get a splash screen. It seems related to the issue listed here on the Technet support forum, but I can’t say for certain.
The only thing that worked for me was to uninstall 16.5.3 (build 13.0.16106.4) and then install the previous version listed in the 13.0.16000.28)